The Human Mitochondrial Genetic Code

Translations: ATP6, ATP8, ND1, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, ND6, CO1, CO2, CO3, CytB.

Phe
F
UUU
UUC
Thr
T
ACU
ACC
ACA
ACG
Asp
D
GAU
GAC
Leu (1)
L (UUA/G)
UUA
UUG
Ala
A
GCU
GCC
GCA
GCG
Glu
E
GAA
GAG
Leu (2)
L (CUN)
CUU
CUC
CUA
CUG
Tyr
Y
UAU
UAC
Cys
C
UGU
UGC
Ile
I
AUU*
AUC
Ter
UAA
UAG
Trp
W
UGA
UGG
Met
M
AUA
AUG
His
H
CAU
CAC
Arg
R
CGU
CGC
CGA
CGG
Val
V
GUU
GUC
GUA
GUG
Gln
Q
CAA
CAG
Ser (2)
S (AGU/C)
AGU
AGC
Ser (1)
S (UCN)
UCU
UCC
UCA
UCG
Asn
N
AAU
AAC
See note
below+
AGA
AGG
Pro
P
CCU
CCC
CCA
CCG
                        
Lys
K
AAA
AAG


                        
Gly
G
GGU
GGC
GGA
GGG
                        

Note that, unlike the universal code, UGA codes for tryptophan instead of termination and AUA codes for methionine instead of isoleucine.

* AUU codes for isoleucine during elongation but can code for methionine for initiation (ND2) See Fearnley & Walker (1987) and Peabody (1989).

+For thirty years AGA and AGG were considered terminators instead of coding for arginine. However, Temperley (2010) has recently shown that human mitochondria use only UAA and UAG stop codons.


Anderson, S., Bankier, A.T., Barrell, B.G., de Bruijn, M.H., Coulson, A.R., Drouin, J., Eperon, I.C., Nierlich, D.P., Roe, B.A., Sanger, F., Schreier, P.H., Smith, A.J., Staden, R. and Young, I.G. (1981). "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome." Nature 290(5806):457-465.

Barrell, B.G., Anderson, S., Bankier, A.T., de Bruijn, M.H., Chen, E., Coulson, A.R., Drouin, J., Eperon, I.C., Nierlich, D.P., Roe, B.A., Sanger, F., Schreier, P.H., Smith, A.J., Staden, R. and Young, I.G. (1980). "Different pattern of codon recognition by mammalian mitochondrial tRNAs." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 77(6):3164-3166.

Barrell, B.G., Bankier, A.T. and Drouin, J. (1979). "A different genetic code in human mitochondria." Nature 282(5735):189-194.

Fearnley, I. M. and Walker, J. E. (1987). "Initiation codons in mammalian mitochondria: differences in genetic code in the organelle." Biochemistry 26(25):8247-8251.

Knight, R.D., Freeland, S.J. and Landweber, L.F. (2001). "Rewiring the keyboard: evolvability of the genetic code." Nature Reviews Genetics 2(1):49-58.

Knight, R.D., Landweber, L.F. and Yarus, M. (2001). "How mitochondria redefine the code." Journal of Molecular Evolution 53(4-5):299-313.

Peabody, D. S. (1989). "Translation initiation at non-AUG triplets in mammalian cells." Journal of Biological Chemistry 264(9):5031-5035.

Temperley, R., Richter, R., Dennerlein, S., Lightowlers, R. N. and Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Z. M. (2010). "Hungry codons promote frameshifting in human mitochondrial ribosomes." Science 327(5963):301.

Yokobori, S., Suzuki, T. and Watanabe, K. (2001). "Genetic code variations in mitochondria: tRNA as a major determinant of genetic code plasticity." Journal of Molecular Evolution 53(4-5):314-326.

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Topic revision: r6 - 04 May 2011 - 18:41:18 - MarieLott
 
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