Complete Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

The revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) is GenBank number NC_012920.
Please use this new number when citing the rCRS in publications. The rCRS is a reference sequence, not a "consensus" sequence. It is a single reference individual from haplogroup H2a2 and has been used as a standard for reporting variants for over 30 years. See Bandelt's new 2013 rCRS review, link below.

View MITOMAP's fully annotated rCRS sequence here.

The Cambridge Reference Sequence, revised & original:

Version GenBank # Fasta format Article links
Revised Cambridge Reference Sequence ("rCRS")
Two identical versions of the rCRS are available in GenBank.
NC_012920, formerly AC_000021.2, is in GenBank's RefSeq database. It is the most commonly used rCRS and is the standard comparison sequence for human mtDNA research. For publications, please cite NC_012920 as the rCRS.
J01415.2 gi:113200490 is a fully corrected update of the original Cambridge sequence and is identical to NC_012920.

NC_012920 gi:251831106 rCRS-fasta NEW Bandelt's 2013 rCRS review (PDF)

Andrews et al 1999 (PubMed)
Original Cambridge Reference Sequence ("CRS") J01415

Other comparison hmtDNAs in GenBank & elsewhere:
  • Root Sequence "RSRS" of Behar et al, 2012 This is an inferred sequence between haplogroups L0 and L1′2′3′4′5′6, proposed for better rooting of phylogenetic trees. Available on the Phylotree web site as a fasta file (not in GenBank).
    SNP differences in the RSRS from the rCRS are listed here (rCRS on the left, RSRS on the right): A73G, T146C, T152C, T195C, G247A, A263G, A523d, C524d, A750G, G769A, T825A, G1018A, A1438G, A2706G, G2758A, T2885C, C3594T, A4104G, C4312T, A4769G, C7028T, A7146G, C7256T, G7521A, C8468T, C8655T, A8701G, A8860G, T9540C, A10398G, C10664T, G10688A, T10810C, T10873C, T10915C, G11719A, G11914A, C12705T, A13105G, A13276G, C13506T, C13650T, C14766T, A15326G, G16129A, C16187T, T16189C, C16223T, A16230G, C16278T, T16311C, T16519C. See also Phylotree's summary table of differences.
  • African (Yoruba) Sequence AF347015, formerly NC_001807.4. This L3e sequence has over 40 variant nucleotides from the rCRS.
  • African (Uganda) Sequence D38112 This L0a sequence has over 90 variant nucleotides from the rCRS.
  • Swedish Sequence X93334 This U5a sequence has over 30 variant nucleotides from the rCRS.
  • Japanese Sequence AB055387 This B5b sequence has over 50 variant nucleotides from the rCRS.

NEW Other mtDNA sequences: Mitobank

To find >25,000 complete human mtDNAs in GenBank: execute search
*includes sequences that are complete coding region but minus the control region (15400 nucleotides minimum).

To find >13,000 other complete eukaryote (non-human) mtDNA genomes in GenBank: execute search.

Partial and full sequences are also available for Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, Homo heidelbergensis and Homo sp. Altai mtDNA.

Representative Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of >4100 different organisms are listed at NCBI.

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Topic revision: r35 - 04 Apr 2014 - 16:00:07 - MarieLott
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